Until very recently, if I was debugging a program, I practically always did one of these three things:
- open a debugger
- look at the source code
- insert some print statements
I’ve started sometimes debugging a new way. With this method, I don’t look at the source code, don’t edit the source code, and don’t use a debugger. I don’t even need to have the program’s source available to me!
Can we repeat that again? I can look at the internal behavior of closed-source programs.
How?!?! AM I A WIZARD? Nope. SYSTEM CALLS! What is a system call? Operating systems know how to open files, display things to the screen, start processes, and all kinds of things. Programs can ask their operating system to do these things, using functions called system calls.
System calls are the API for your computer, so you don’t have to know how a network card works to send a HTTP request.
Here’s a list of the
system calls Linux 2.2
provides, to give you a sense for what’s available. There’s
kill, and all kinds of
other things. System calls are basically the definition of platform
specific (different operating system have different system calls), so
we’re only going to be talking about Linux here.
How can we use these to debug? Here are a few of my favorite system calls!
open opens files. Every time any program opens a file it needs to
open system call. There’s no other way.
So! Let’s say you have a backup program on your computer, and you want to know which files it’s working on. And that it doesn’t show you a progress bar or have any options. Let’s say that it has PID 60.
We can spy on this program with a tool called
strace and print out
every file it opens!
strace shows you which system calls a program
calls. To spy on our backup program, we would run
strace -e trace=open
-p 60, to tell it to print all the
open system calls from PID 60.
For example, I ran
strace -e trace=open ssh and here were some of the
things I found:
open("/etc/ssh/ssh_config", O_RDONLY) = 3 open("/home/bork/.ssh/config", O_RDONLY) = 3 open("/home/bork/.ssh/id_dsa", O_RDONLY) = 4 open("/home/bork/.ssh/id_dsa.pub", O_RDONLY) = 4 open("/home/bork/.ssh/id_rsa", O_RDONLY) = 4 open("/home/bork/.ssh/id_rsa.pub", O_RDONLY) = 4 open("/home/bork/.ssh/known_hosts", O_RDONLY) = 4
This makes total sense!
ssh needs to read my private and public
keys, my local ssh config, and the global ssh config. Neat!
super simple and super useful.
execve starts programs. All programs. There’s no way to start a
program except to use
execve. We can use
strace to spy on
For example! I was trying to understand a Ruby script that was
basically just running some
ssh commands. I could have read the Ruby
code! But I really just wanted to know which damn command it was
running! I did this by running
strace -f -s3000 -e trace=execve and
read zero code!
-f option is super important here. It also tracks the system
calls of every subprocess! I basically use
-f all the time. Use
([longer blog post about using strace + execve to poke at Ruby programs]).
write writes to files. I think there are ways to write to a file
write (like by using
mmap), but usually if a file
is being written to, it’s using
strace -e trace=write on an
ssh session, this is some of what
write(3, "SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_5.9p1 Debian-5ubuntu1.1\r\n", 41) = 41 [...] write(5, "[jvns /home/public]$ ", 21) = 21 write(3, "\242\227e\376\344\36\270\343\331\307\231\332\373\273\324\303X\n<\241p`\212\21\317\353`\1/\3629\273m\23\17\26\304\fJ\352z\210\2\210\211~7W", 48) = 48 write(5, "logout\r\n", 8) = 8 write(3, "b\277\306\16!\6J\202\tF$\241\32\302\3\0\23\310\346f\241\233\263\254\325\351z\222\234\224\270\231", 32) = 32 write(3, "\311\372\353\273\233oU\226~\373N\227\323*S\263\307\272\204VzO \10\2\316\224\335X@Hj\26\366\271J:i6\311\240A\325\331\341\220\1%\233\240\23n\23\242\34\277\2139\376\31j\255\32h", 64) = 64 write(2, "Connection to ssh.phx.nearlyfreespeech.net closed.\r\n", 52) = 52
So it opens an SSH connection, writes a prompt to my terminal, sends some (encrypted!) data over the connection, and prints that the connection is closed! Neat! I understand a bit more about how ssh works now!
I want to talk about one more Linux thing, and it isn’t a system call.
It’s a directory called
/proc! There are a million things that
/proc does, but this is my favorite:
/proc tells you every file your process has open. All of them! For
example, one of my Chrome processes has PID 3823. If I run
/proc/3823/fd/*, it shows me all the files Chrome has open!
fd stands for “file descriptor”.
$ ls -l /proc/3823/fd/* total 0 lr-x------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 0 -> /dev/null l-wx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 1 -> /dev/null lrwx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 10 -> socket: lr-x------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 100 -> /opt/google/chrome/nacl_irt_x86_64.nexe lrwx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 101 -> /home/bork/.config/google-chrome/Default/Application Cache/Cache/index lrwx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 102 -> /home/bork/.config/google-chrome/Default/Application Cache/Cache/data_0 lrwx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 103 -> socket: lrwx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 104 -> socket: lrwx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 105 -> /home/bork/.config/google-chrome/Default/Application Cache/Cache/data_1 lrwx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 106 -> /home/bork/.config/google-chrome/Default/Application Cache/Cache/data_2 lrwx------ 1 bork bork 64 Apr 19 09:28 107 -> /home/bork/.config/google-chrome/Default/Application Cache/Cache/data_3
aaaand a million more. This is great. There are also a ton more things
/proc/3823. Look around! I wrote a bit more about
Recovering files using /proc (and spying, too!).
ltrace: beyond system calls!
Lots of things happen outside of the kernel. Like string comparisons!
I don’t need a network card for that! What if we wanted to know about
strace won’t help us at all. But
Let’s try running
ltrace killall firefox. We see a bunch of things
fopen("/proc/10578/stat", "r") => 0x11984f0 free(0x011984d0) fscanf(0x11984f0, 0x403fe7, 0x7fff09984980, 0x7f2fc7cd4728, 0) fclose(0x11984f0) strcmp("firefox", "kworker/u:0")
So! We’ve just learned that
killall works by opening a file in
/proc (wheeee!), finding what its name is, and seeing if it’s the
same as “firefox”. That makes sense!
When are these tools useful?
These systems-level debugging tools are only appropriate sometimes. If you’re writing a graph traversal algorithm and it has a logical error, knowing which files it opened won’t help you at all!
Here are some examples of times when using systems tools might make your life easier:
- Is your program running a command, but the wrong one? Look at
- Your program communicates with something on a network, but some of
the information it’s sending is wrong? It’s probably sending it with
- Your program writes to a file, but you don’t know what file it’s
writing to? Use
/procto see what files it has open, or look at what it’s
At first debugging this way is confusing, but once you’re familiar with the tools it can actually be faster, because you don’t have to worry about getting the wrong information! And you feel like a WIZARD.
Learn your operating system instead of a new debugger
There are all kinds of programming-language-specific debugging tools
you can use.
pdb! And you should! But you probably
switch languages more often than you switch OSes. So, learning your OS
in depth and then using it as a debugging tool is likely a better
investment of your time than learning a language-specific debugging
If you want to know which files a process has open, it doesn’t matter
if that program was originally written in C++ or Python or Java or
Haskell. The only way for a program to open a file on Linux is with
open system call. If you learn your operating system, you
acquire superpowers. You can debug programs that are binary-only and
closed source. You can use the same tools to debug no matter which
language you’re writing.
And my favorite thing about these methods is that your OS won’t lie to
you. The only way to run a program is with the
call. There aren’t other ways. So if you really want to know what
command got run, use
strace. See exactly which parameters get passed
execve. You’ll know exactly what happened.
Try Greg Price’s excellent blog post Strace – The Sysadmin’s Microscope. I have an ever-growing collection of blog posts about strace, too!
My favorite way to learn more, honestly, is to just strace random programs and see what I find out. It’s a great way to spend a rainy Sunday afternoon! =)