Julia Evans

Day 35: Launching my VMs more reliably

I’ve been having a problem for a while where my virtual machines (that I use to set up the puzzles) don’t launch reliably – sometimes they work, and sometimes they don’t.

I didn’t understand why this was before, and on Friday I think I figured it out!

what was going wrong

When I started a puzzle, I’d:

  • launch a VM (by giving cloud-init a cloud-init.yaml file), which would set up all the right files and run some commands
  • wait until SSH was up
  • ssh into the VM and run a script called setup/run.sh
  • done!

I don’t know why it took me so long to remember this, but – just because ssh is running, it doesn’t mean that the cloud-init is done running! So if I ssh into the instance as soon as SSH is up, my setup script might not have everything it needs to run.

I also found this launchpad bug suggesting that at some point in the past cloud-init only brought up SSH when it was finished running, but that that doesn’t happen anymore.

solution: wait until cloud-init is done running

cloud-init makes this pretty easy: it creates a file at /var/lib/cloud/data/result.json when it’s done running.

I also made my puzzle setup code run as part of cloud-init (in the scripts/per-boot stage), so I don’t need to do an extra SSH to run the last stage of setup.

So now instead I’m doing:

  • launch a VM (by giving cloud-init a cloud-init.yaml file)
  • wait until SSH is up
  • wait until the result.json file is present
  • make sure that cloud-init succeeded
  • done!

I’m not sure that this will solve all my problems, but it’s helped already and it’s a much better plan.

how to make SSH ignore .ssh/known_hosts

Right now I’m testing my cloud-init.yaml files by spinning up a bunch of VMs on my laptop with qemu. I had a problem where every instance had a different randomly generated SSH key, so SSH was giving me these giant warnings about the key for ubuntu@localhost:2222 changing. These warnings were annoying me (and providing no value in this case) so I wanted them to go away.

At first I tried to solve this with ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no but, while this let me SSH without typing “yes” to the prompt warning me about the change in keys, it still displayed the warning.

I found out that I can do ssh -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null instead, which ignores my usual .ssh/known_hosts file.

a script to run my cloud-init files locally with qemu

I also wrote a script to run my cloud-init files locally!

Here it is. Now I can just run ./scripts/start-vm PUZZLE-NAME to start the VM for a given puzzle. It takes about a minute to boot a VM and it made it WAY WAY WAY faster to iterate on changes.

I’ve gotten a bit better at bash recently by writing the bash zine and I used some of my newfound bash knowledge here (like using trap to kill the qemu process when the script exits, writing while loops, and $(()) for arithmetic.). I felt like this was a nice example of a good place for a bash script because:

  • the logic is very simple (there’s just 1 while loop and a trap)
  • it needs to run a bunch of processes (so bash is the right language)
  • I’m the only person using it
set -e
# kill qemu on exit
trap 'set -e; kill $(jobs -p)' exit

CLOUD_INIT_FILE=$(find . -path "*$1*cloud-init.yaml")
[ -f $CLOUD_INIT_FILE ] || exit

echo "instance-id: $(uuidgen || echo i-abcdefg)" > my-meta-data

qemu-img create -b $FOCAL -f qcow2 -F qcow2 $SNAPSHOT

cloud-localds $IMG $CLOUD_INIT_FILE my-meta-data

qemu-system-x86_64 --enable-kvm -m 1024 \
    -drive file=$SNAPSHOT,format=qcow2 \
    -drive file=$IMG,format=raw \
    -net user,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22 -net nic \
    -nographic > out 2>out &

SSH_OPTIONS="-p 2222 -i wizard.key -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null -o ConnectTimeout=1 -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no"

while ! ssh $SSH_OPTIONS wizard@localhost 'python3 /usr/local/bin/started_up'
    duration=$(( SECONDS - start ))
    echo "waiting for ssh.. $duration"
    sleep 1
# we're done! SSH into the VM.
ssh $SSH_OPTIONS wizard@localhost

next up: see if it’s actually more reliable!

I’ve done a lot of testing locally and this setup seems more reliable, but I still haven’t implemented it in production. My guess is that there are still a few other problems I’ll need to work out.

Booting a VM is also still pretty slow – it takes almost 2 minutes sometimes! Kamal suggested using kexec and I still haven’t fully understood what that is or how I could use it.

Daily blog posts about my time at RC Server-sent events: a simple way to stream events from a server